ICAs: historical timeline

This page is under construction. The timeline will be expanded further.

ca. 1050 – 1795

Merchant guilds

Merchants within a city strengthened their position towards the authorities by joining forces.
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Craft guilds

About a century after merchants started to cooperate, craftsmen adopted the same strategy.
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ca. 1150 – 1795
ca. 1150 – ca. 1800


Farmers set rules for common grazing areas, thus creating common lands for the benefit of the entire community.
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Also called the female guilds. Women found work in the growing cities. For security reasons,many single women opted for a cooperative form of housing.
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ca. 1200 – 1850
ca. 1250 – present


Land owners and land users worked together to keep their feet dry. Together, they built and maintained dikes, sluices, windmills and other water infrastructure.
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